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淮安家庭美食养生的主要特征

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发表于 2020-12-16 14:50:11 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
崇尚以淮产烹淮菜。境内禽鱼虾蟹四季丰盈,时鲜果蔬接踵上市,自古就是物产富饶的鱼米之乡,为创制美味佳肴提供了雄厚的物质基础和广阔的施展空间。百姓家常所用食材,多为当地野生或养种植的土特产。淮安代代相传“适生为宝,适体为贵,适口为珍,适时为佳,适量为宜,适意为快”的饮食箴言,不以陆海珍藏、殊方异类为极品,尤反对野蛮残忍地捕杀濒绝稀有之物。主张以博大精深的烹饪技艺,推出变化无穷的美食精品,而无需以失去人与自然的和谐为代价。故淮安民谣自豪地唱道:看农家乐,听渔家傲,羹鱼饭稻,几生修到?这方神奇的土地还出现了一个奇特的文化现象:淮安人似乎对本地的名优特产倾注了太多的感情,几乎个个都冠以淮姓,这种最原始的“注册商标”,居然得到了四海八方的认可,各类菜谱诗文中沿用至今。如数千年列为贡品、被苏东坡、杨万里等赞不绝口的淮白,为历代美食家们津津乐道的银鱼紫蟹青虾湖鳖合称“淮四鲜”,脍炙人口的“淮蔬双璧” 淮笋(蒲菜)淮杞,野鸡野鸭野兔组成的“淮三野”,还有备受青睐的淮山药、淮秋豆、淮藕、淮菘、淮蟹、淮猪等名优物产,形成了淮氏风味特产大家族。显然契合了“一方水土养一方人”即“身土不二” 的养生法则。


崇尚本色本味,清淡爽洁。淮安地界南北之中,地势平缓,气候温和,四季分明,不湿不燥,不仅决定人们的身体特质、饮食习惯与需求结构,也决定了以养生为目的的家常菜点的风格特征。鱼虾蟹鳖,最好现捕现烧现吃,淮白、鳜鱼以清蒸为妙;鸡鸭鸽、马蹄鳖等,也多清炖保真,无需投放味精、鸡精等现代增味剂,力求原汁原味。各类菜点无不以味取胜,不刻意追求姹紫嫣红、花团锦簇的目食效果,不添加现代色素。以独特的烩焐烧煨焖之法,使各类羹汤菜汁或浓厚而不油腻,或清鲜而不淡薄。以精妙入微的炒技,使一道菜在十几秒或半分钟内完成烹饪,色香诱人且保留了绝大多数营养成分。尤其是坚持“一席半斋”,即清爽宜人的村野素馔在餐桌上占到一半,与现代人养生食尚不谋而合。古往今来,生活节俭的淮安百姓,饮食风格“简单而不肯粗陋,精洁而不喜奢华。”即非荒年暴月,也有搭食野菜花卉的习俗,以其无偿或价廉,且多具有食疗养生功效,还可调剂口味,增添花色。经过数千年去粗取精,筛选出五十多种可做出各种佳肴的野菜和花卉来,进而引其登入大雅之堂,故“一席半斋” 成为淮菜公认的一大特色。

崇尚组配谐和,味众至和。原辅料的配伍以及拼盘组菜,既重荤素、品状、质感、色泽相协调,更强调依据原辅料“寒热温凉”不同性味,适应不同气候下的风寒暑湿燥火之变以及男女老幼身体禀赋。坚持依据季节时令,选择食材。除了穆斯林群众外,当地百姓一般夏季不吃牛羊肉,立冬后方买牛羊肉;冬春多吃鸡,夏秋多吃鸭,四季吃鹅;春季以吃鲫鱼为主,夏季首推银鱼、秋季鳜鱼当令、冬季白鱼为美,四季都吃小杂鱼;重阳前后开始吃螃蟹,小雪过后只吃醉蟹。猪肉、鳖、长鱼则是一年吃到头。蔬菜瓜果总是在它正常上市,即当令时品质最佳,对人体也最有益,不喜为了显示富有或与众不同,反季节吃早吃少。淮安人在味道上追求口感适中不过偏,讲究“咸淡酸甜苦辣鲜”各味,必须“适得其中,妙契众口”,使男女老幼都能吃且觉得好吃。各种味道过与不及,皆不可取,也不协淮菜宗风。正如《黄帝内经》所云:“酸生肝,苦生心,甘生脾,辛生肺,咸生肾,此五脏之生,本在五味也。多食酸则伤肝,多食苦则伤心,多食甘则伤脾,多食辛则伤肺,多食咸则伤肾。……故五味虽所以养人,多食则反伤人也。”道理如同“水可载舟,亦可覆舟”。水小则胶着难行甚至搁浅,水大则巨浪汹涌,随时会翻船。人凡嗜味有所偏,必生有所偏之疾,甚至因所嗜丧其身。

崇尚美食,讲究口味,喜欢并舍得下苦功精研烹技。何时进何食,是一门科学,将养生的菜点做成可口的美味则是艺术。否则,每日三餐进食如吞药进补,岂非苦不堪言?纵活百年,又有什么意思?故美食除了维生、养生外,第三层功用就是“食能悦神爽志”,即悦生功能。一代又一代淮安主妇,在“食”上竭才尽智,不断推陈出新,即使凡鱼村蔬,甚至粗粝野菜,也要费尽心思,做得有滋有味、悦人益生。每个人一生中对于美食最难忘的就是母亲做的家常菜。因为哪怕一两根咸菜、一两条小鱼、一撮香椿、一块豆腐,皆是可着家人的胃口,循着自家的饮食习惯,照着各人的年龄身体状况,尽心着意做出来的。无论在食材挑拣、洗涤加工,每一道工序都是无可挑剔的,都是安全的。哪怕走遍天涯海角,哪怕尝遍天下美味,最牵动游子万千情思的,还是慈母亲手做出的家常饭菜。淮安家庭主妇倾注了无数汗水与才思的许多家常菜点,如一鸡九吃、荷包鱼、粉蒸肉、淮山鸭羹、酒焖黄鸡、酸汤鱼圆、肉飥、虾饼、烫面饺等,早已成为经典肴馔,得到历代美食家的极高赞誉和名厨大师的诚服借鉴。正因“玉生璞中”,千家万户的烹饪技艺及“家常菜点”的整体水平起点很高,才汇成了淮扬菜取之不竭的清纯甘甜的源头活水。

淮安家庭美食养生的经验与方法,是数千年来淮安人集体智慧的结晶。如能广泛传播,庶几可为异彩纷呈的人类现代生活,多提供一种科学、益生、经济、唯美的饮食理念与养生方式,造福亿万大众。
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