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码头铁牛与高堰铁牛

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发表于 2020-12-16 15:24:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
高家堰段石工墙现有遗存长约800米,全部由1米左右长、约0.4米厚的条石砌成。地面以上可见5—7层,2011年3月18日考古深挖一处,探明共有18层。
高堰镇水铁犀与这段仅存的洪泽湖大堤石工墙一起,证明着这条长堤的修筑历史和重大作用。


码头镇水铁犀与高堰镇水铁犀当年都在清河县境内。码头镇水铁犀所处的位置在南运口(里运河的入水口)北侧,属于运河工程(《行水金鉴》说是在黄河大堤上);高堰镇水铁犀在洪泽湖大堤上,属于淮河工程。现存的镇水铁犀除高堰铁牛仍在原处外,其它六具都被挪动了地方,多数成为公园内的景观了。洪泽湖大堤上另外四具在洪泽县,当年被分置在“高良涧、龙门大坝、卯家围、夏家桥诸处”(《行水金鉴》),属于淮河工程。高邮、邵伯各一具当年在运河堤上,属于运河工程。
清口以下黄河、里运河边还有几具已经失落的铁牛也值得一提。清代傅泽洪所著的《行水金鉴》也记载到了康熙四十年所铸造的铁牛,除卞家汪石工上的铁牛外,自码头镇向东北的黄河经清江浦老坝口直至涟水县的茆良口和响水县的大通口,在黄河大堤的险工地段还安置过三具镇水铁牛。其中一具就在老坝口。现在万达广场东北处的黄河南大堤称过老坝口(回民墓地附近),当年这里是黄河车路口的老险工地段,河决老坝口水灌淮安三城曾造成过重大灾害(钵池山公园之前称为大口子,就是黄河决堤冲刷而成的大塘),为了镇水防浪,镇水铁牛安放于老坝口就理所当然了。这具铁水牛成了地标,铁牛大概毁于抗日战争初期,但此地聚落有街巷称为“铁水牛”。直到现在,当地许多老人还记得铁水牛这个地方。响水县的大通口有过铁水牛的传说,与九牛二虎的传说基本一致,据说铁牛也毁于抗日战争时期。至于涟水县的茆良口黄河大堤上安放过的铁牛,其下落就不得而知了。
《续纂山阳县志·古迹》记载:“铁牛在武家墩、高涧坝、高家堰。为康熙年间河臣张文端公所铸,铸以五月五日。命曰镇水犀。凡十六具。分置之地不尽属山阳。背有铭曰:维金克木蛟龙藏,维土制水龟蛇降。铸犀作镇奠淮扬,永除昏垫报吾皇。”此段记载与《民国续纂清河县志》卷十五《艺文·附金石》中的记载基本一致。由此看来,山阳(今淮安区)境内应该有铁牛。《淮安历史文化研究》2013第3期还刊登过樊国栋先生《河下铁牛寻踪》的文章。文中介绍了湖嘴码头有古代的镇水铁牛,就埋在堆坂下面,但不清楚具体位置。樊先生为此访问了许多八九十岁的老人,虽然对铁牛的具体位置说法不一,但此地运河边曾有过铁牛是毋庸置疑的,因为不仅有许多人亲眼看到过,还有人曾骑在铁水牛的背上玩耍过。此地的铁水牛或者曾有两具的可能,从老人描述当年的情况来看,此地铁牛也应该是毁于抗日战争期间。
高堰铁牛声名远扬,码头铁牛却鲜为人知。然而,当年码头铁牛位置显赫,其作用和影响是远远大于高堰铁牛的。在清口枢纽成为世界文化遗产的今天,了解码头铁牛及其与高堰铁牛的联系,对于发掘地方历史文化资源和增强了解清口枢纽的重要作用都是一件很有意义的事情。
《咸丰清河县志·川渎(下)》记载:“卞家汪石工:长八十四丈,康熙四十一年建,有铁犀一”。“卞家汪石工”在如今淮阴区码头镇码头医院身下的大堤中,是康熙四十一年建设的石工墙,其作用是防止淮河(洪泽湖)水冲刷此处大堤,保证漕船出南运口(里运河口,就在卞家汪石工南侧)后顺流北行向惠济祠边过黄河而北上。在卞家汪石工上有一具“铁犀”(俗称铁牛)。
《民国续纂清河县志》在卷十五《艺文·附金石》中记载:“镇水铁犀在码头镇。康熙间河督张文端公鹏翮铸。铸以五月五日,凡十六具,分置黄淮运各险工上,命曰镇水犀。不尽在清河境内,背有铭曰:维金克木蛟龙藏,维土制水龟蛇降。铸犀作镇奠淮扬,永除昏垫报吾皇。”此处记载“镇水铁犀”,突出“在码头镇”,其余十五具铁犀作简略交代,可见码头镇的这具镇水铁犀地位显赫。

码头镇的这一具镇水铁犀置放的位置至关重要。当年,此地南侧就是康熙时期南运口,南运口与淮河(洪泽湖口)相接,康熙皇帝南下北上都必经此处,在卞家汪石工等一系列黄淮运工程成功之时,河道总督张鹏翮安排铸造十六具镇水犀,分置在黄淮运各险工上。码头镇的这一具镇水铁犀立于南运口拐弯转角进入淮河处的大堤顶部,面朝汹涌澎湃的南运口和洪泽湖口(淮河口),镇定自若地安慰着担负朝廷重要使命的过往漕船,其标志作用、心理作用、景点作用和记绩作用都是显而易见的。十六具镇水犀以清口为中心向各处分布:沿运河向东南分布到山阳、高邮马棚湾、邵伯等运河工程的险工险段上。沿洪泽湖大堤向南分布到高家堰、高良涧等险工险段上,其数量最多,当时都属清河县境内,且都属于淮河工程范围之内。沿黄河向东北分布到清江浦老坝口、涟水县茆良口、响水县大通口等黄河工程的险工险段上。
《咸丰清河县志》上的《康熙四十一年前河口图》可见当年此地地貌和水势。码头镇镇水铁犀下的卞家汪石工向北,又有天妃坝石工、惠济祠石工。康熙、雍正、乾隆时期,三段石工连为一体,累加共长593丈,雄伟壮丽,石工墙西的淮河水、黄河水汹涌澎湃向北流去。这一具镇水犀(俗称铁水牛)处在几里路长石工墙最南端的大堤顶部,其镇守石工大堤的凛凛威风自不待言。
然而,由于黄河泥沙的不断垫高,到“嘉庆十四年加高堤工,通行包筑,石工遂埋于堤内”(《咸丰清河县志》)。咸丰五年(1855)黄河从河南铜瓦厢决口往渤海而去,清口上下的黄河顿时变成了废黄河,码头镇以南的洪泽湖出现了大片淤滩。“卞家汪石工”“天妃坝石工”“惠济祠石工”三位一体的高堤上,无须防汛,就住上了人家。尤其是南头的“卞家汪石工”,宽堤上方中间留路,两旁住满人家,形成了独具特色的一条古街,整条石工一直长眠在堤内。直到二十世纪五十年代开挖二河发现了埋在堤内的石工墙,北边的大部分石料和木料才被陆续挖掘出来,而古街身下的石工仍然在地下。
民国年间码头铁牛还在,后来怎么没有了呢?访问此处许多目击老人,他们都确指了铁水牛的位置在码头医院门口安澜街东侧偏南方向一户人家的北山头,都说铁水牛和高家堰上的铁水牛一模一样(包括铭文)。但对其下落的具体时间有两种说法:多数人说是1947年被国民党28师用于造武器了;也有不少人说是毁于“文革”时期。
高堰镇水铁犀仍然立于当年洪泽湖大堤高家堰段的险工之上。高堰铁犀长1.73米,宽0.83米,高0.81米,昂首屈膝伏卧在宽0.83米,厚0.07米的铁板底座上。铁犀与底座连成一体,总重2400公斤。铁犀肩部有铭文曰:“维金克木蛟龙藏,维土制水龟蛇降。铸犀作镇奠淮扬,永除昏垫报吾皇。”铭文后有说明文字:“康熙辛巳年午日铸,监造官王国用”。现存的高堰镇水铁犀与志书记载的码头镇水铁犀互相印证,结合目击老人的描述,可见两具铁犀的形貌和铭文都很一致。铸造时间是康熙四十年(1701年)端午节,当时的河道总督是张鹏翮,监造官是王国用,镇水犀的准确数是十六具(传说“九牛二虎一只鸡”,看来是附会所致)。
高堰镇水铁犀是当年十六具现存七具铁水牛中最有代表性的一尊,只有它一直立在原处(高家堰大堤的石工墙上)。高家堰大堤是洪泽湖大堤的北部,在整条大堤中地势最低、建成最早、历时最长,损坏次数最多,花费帝王、河臣的精力和经费也最多。康熙皇帝曾亲临此处筹划治水方略。当年汹涌澎湃的洪泽湖水猛烈冲击着大堤西侧的石工墙。治河大臣们在又一次修建好石工墙之后,采用五行相克的原理,将一具镇水铁犀放置此处,既期望镇水犀镇堤防浪,又为此次险工险段增添了不朽的文化景观。
咸丰五年黄河北徙而去,洪泽湖水向南退去几十里,码头镇以南出现了大片湖滩,高家堰大堤西边的湖水不见了,湖滩不断被开垦为农田,并且不断住上了人家。高家堰处大堤不再具备防洪功能而成为历史的遗迹了。二河的拓宽和加深,又使高家堰大堤变成了二河的西堤,原来西边是大湖,现在西边是村庄,东边却是大河。沧桑之变,令人难辨,这就是来此游玩者迷惑不解石工墙为什么会在大堤西侧的原因。

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